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  1. Gravity  –  Gravity is the weakest of the four fundamental forces, yet it is the dominant force in the universe for shaping the large scale structure of galaxies, stars, etc.
  2. Electrostatic – One hundred times weaker than Strong Nuclear Bonds. Manifests itself through the forces between charges. The electromagnetic force holds atoms and molecules together. In fact, the forces of electric attraction and repulsion of electric charges are so dominant over the other three fundamental forces that they can be considered to be negligible as determiners of atomic and molecular structure.
  3. Strong nuclear bonds – The strongest of the forces. It is what lets atoms form and keeps objects/things from disintegrating into subatomic bits.
  4. Weak nuclear bonds – One thousand times weaker than ‘strong’ nuclear force.  This allows for certain types of nuclear disintegration.

 The Four Basic Forces of Flight

  1. You need to overcome your own weight–that is, the force of  gravity.
  2. To overcome gravity, you need to create an upward force called lift. That’s what an airplane’s wings are for.
  3. To create lift, you need forward motion. That’s what an airplane’s engines are for–they produce a force called thrust.
  4. To keep moving, you need to overcome the resistance of the air–a force called drag. An airplane’s engines do that too. 

 The Four Elements

  1. Earth
  2. Air
  3. Water
  4. Wind

Aristotle held that there are basically four causes in nature:

  1. the efficient cause,
  2. the matter,
  3. the end, and
  4. the form.

Any major philosophical period has four phases:

  1. Creative and rapidly progressing with scientific interest and results; then declining through the remaining phases
  2. practical,
  3. increasingly skeptical, and 
  4. literary, mystical, and scientifically worthless — until philosophy is renewed through a new period’s first phase.

Four Operations in Math

  1. Addition
  2. Subtraction
  3. Multiplication
  4. Division
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